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Diesel tuning

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Hi just wondering if lamda 1 is complete combustion why would a Diesel blow black smoke when tuned to this?

The lambda sensor in the exhaust is measuring the air fuel ratio of the combustion process, however if you're getting black soot in a diesel engine then this is excess fuel or particulate matter that hasn't taken place in the combustion process and the lambda sensor doesn't monitor fuel or hydrocarbon output but rather oxygen content. It's very similar to a petrol engine where we can have excessive black smoke and a perfectly acceptable air fuel ratio because the fuel is being introduced in a form where it can't easily combust.