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Practical Reflash Tuning: Step 3: Configure Base Tune File

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Step 3: Configure Base Tune File


00:00 - With this worked example because we are going to be using the speed density operating system, there's a little bit of work that we need to do with our ROM file configuration before we can start and run the engine.
00:13 So we're going to go through that and there's a few steps over and above what we would need to do if we were going to be doing a more typical tune using the factory MAF and speed density tables.
00:25 So let's go through that now.
00:27 Now we've got our base ROM file open and the very first thing we're going to do is move up to our OS or operating system icon and if we click on that we're going to have some options available here.
00:41 And the one we're actually going to look at here is our code modification which you can see is listed as as a speed density two bar operating system.
00:49 And when we click on this button we're going to see a box open up which tells us the process we need to go through which is great, it gives us a quick guide or quick reference guide on the steps required.
01:01 So we're simply going to go through that.
01:03 The first step we need to do is to save this file with a new name and normally I'm going to call this something like one bar SD or simply SD.
01:13 And we need to close that file and reopen it and then once we're ready to actually write that file into the PCM we need to perform a write entire.
01:22 We're going to go through that process so you'll see exactly what we need to do.
01:27 So I'm going to use again the save as function.
01:31 And this time I'm just simply going to modify the identifier to one bar SD.
01:38 So this will again just let us know the state of a particular tune what changes we've made.
01:46 So now we can close down that particular ROM and we'll simply reopen it.
01:53 Now when we reopen it we can see that under the operating system tab our speed density air mode now says applied so that means that that OS is applied to our ROM file.
02:07 If we click on the engine tab now, we're going to find that we have some different tables to what we'd see with a normal ROM file.
02:15 And particularly under our air flow general.
02:17 You can see we now have three volumetric efficiency tables.
02:22 So unlike the standard virtual VE system we now have, if we click on one of these tables, we now have what could be considered a relatively conventional three dimensional volumetric efficiency table.
02:36 All be it right now you can see that all three of these tables are filled with zeros.
02:42 So we're going to need to put some numbers into these tables before we can actually get our engine up and running.
02:48 Right now the engine won't run with zeros in these tables.
02:52 Other thing we'll just talk about briefly here is the numbers that we're going to see in these volumetric efficiency tables.
02:59 They're not your conventional volumetric efficiency or VE numbers that we're used to seeing perhaps numbers in the range of 40 or 50 through to maybe 90 to 110% particularly if you've been used to tuning a gen three LS one for example with a conventional volumetric efficiency table.
03:21 Those numbers aren't going to carry across into the E38 PCM fitted to these gen four engines.
03:30 These particular tables use what's know as GMVE and we're going to see numbers in the range of perhaps 13 or 1400 through to perhaps 2500.
03:42 So we're going to see how we can come up with these numbers shortly.
03:45 Let's move through though and we're going to cover over the changes we're going to need to make to these tables.
03:53 And let's start by calibrating our MAP sensor correctly.
03:58 And this is one of the areas that's often overlooked with a speed density operating system.
04:04 You'd note that the system that we installed there or added was referred to as a two bar system and it reverts straight away to using a two bar MAP sensor.
04:16 However we aren't changing the sensor in this case.
04:20 That'd be great if it was super charged or turboed.
04:22 In this case we're still running the factory MAP sensor.
04:25 So we need to change the MAP sensor scaling or we're going to have trouble there.
04:30 So you can see in our air flow general tab we have our MAP sensor scaling and you can see straight away that it's reverted to 200 kPa here and we want to change that.
04:42 So the easiest way to do that is simply to add our base file as a compare and this again illustrates why it's so important to have your base file saved so we can compare to that.
04:58 Alright so let's have a look here and if we click on our compare file icon here this is gonna show us the numbers from our compare file.
05:07 So our stock linear calibration here for our MAP sensor in this case is 128.13 kPa and the offset is minus .31 So let's just put those numbers into here.
05:22 128.13 and just check again our calibration was minus .31 Minus 0.31 OK so that's set up our MAP sensor.
05:40 This as I've said is a point that a lot of people overlook with this modification to the operating system and wonder why the engine won't operate or won't run correctly.
05:49 So it's essential that we set this to suit the actual MAP sensor that we are running.
05:55 Alright we can close our compare file down now just for simplicity.
05:59 And for the moment for this section we're going to leave our VE table set to zero and we're going to look in the next step of the module at how we can fill these in with some numbers to at least get started with.
06:13 Let's move on though and I'm going to now move a little bit out of order we're going to go across to our torque management tab now and I'm going to make some changes to our torque management settings.
06:25 The torque management strategy is there to reduce or control the maximum amount of engine torque that's being delivered under certain circumstances.
06:34 Particularly when we're going about tuning the vehicle and aiming to make more power and torque.
06:40 This can become problematic if we exceed any of these limits and in fact in some vehicles we will find that even in stock form the torque control limits will be active and this can be affecting the amount of power and torque that the engine delivers.
06:57 So what you're going to want to do to these tables will depend a little bit on your own situation.
07:03 We do need to keep in mind that these torque limits to a degree can be there to protect drive train components so you need to understand the torque handling capability of the drive train components and be a little bit sensible with what you're going to do to these tables.
07:21 I'm going to show the modifications now that I'm going to make and we're going to start with our maximum torque RPM versus gear table.
07:30 So this is an overall limiting table on the maximum amount of torque per RPM and gear.
07:37 And you can see that for most of this table the values are sitting at 8192 which happens to be the maximum value we can enter.
07:47 In first and second gear though you can see that that has been dropped to 546 newton metres as well as reverse.
07:54 So what I'm going to do is start by entering a value of 9000 into all of these cells in the table.
08:01 When I press enter it's going to revert them straight to the maximum value.
08:06 The reason I've entered 9000 there is it's just a little bit quicker than entering 8192 when I press enter the editor makes that change and sets them to their maximum value.
08:17 So I'm gonna close that tab that table you can see that now the RPM versus gear table is highlighted in red to show that we have made a modification to that.
08:28 And we also have a max torque limit versus RPM in each gear.
08:34 And likewise I'm going to go through this table here and each of these tables here and I'm going to set them to the maximum value as well.
08:44 Now this is just simply going to mean that when we are tuning the car we're going to know that we don't have any torque limits becoming active and negatively affecting our tune, negatively affecting the amount of power and torque the engine's making.
09:00 Can be frustrating if you have left these torque limits active and we start exceeding some of the built in limits to try and figure out why the engine isn't performing as you'd expect.
09:12 OK I'm going to simply leave the reverse table at its default values, I'm not particularly concerned about how much torque my engine is making when I'm in reverse gear.
09:23 This doesn't matter of course the next thing I'm going to do is max out both our trans input and our trans output table values as well.
09:33 OK the next thing we're going to talk about here is our brake torque management.
09:37 And this will limit the amount of engine torque that can be delivered while we have our foot on the brake.
09:45 Now particularly if you're going to be racing the car at a drag strip where you're going to try loading the engine up against the brake particularly if you've got a large cam in a high stall converter.
09:58 This is really going to be prohibitive about how much power you can put down while you're staging the vehicle.
10:05 So in that case what we can do here is simply go into this table and max out those values as well.
10:13 For this particular example I'm not that worried about this table, I'm going to leave it.
10:17 But just understand that you may need to change that if you do want to be able to produce more torque against the brake.
10:25 Alright so that covers our torque management.
10:27 We're going to move back now and we're going to move into our spark table.
10:32 And first of all a quick discussion about the changes we're going to be making here.
10:37 First of all a lot of people think that the max torque timing table is where we want to make changes.
10:44 And this is actually configured to MBT timing, this table is used as part of the PCMs torque calculation so depending on how far our current ignition timing is away from the MBT timing value from this table, that goes into the PCMs torque calculation.
11:06 Where we want to be making our changes is down in our main spark advance area here.
11:11 And generally we're going to be making changes to our high octane spark advance table.
11:18 Now you can see despite that fact that we have changed to a speed density operating system here, our spark load axis is still spark air mass so essentially we're looking at grammes per cylinder.
11:32 So this is an area which probably differs a little bit from after market ECUs using the speed density system where both of our spark and our VE tables would use manifold absolute pressure as a load axis.
11:45 In this case regardless of whether we're using mass air flow sensor or the PCM is operating speed density modes solely using the manifold absolute pressure sensor, what's happening is that the PCM is still calculating mass air flow and in this case mass air flow per cylinder is still the load axis for our spark table.
12:06 So we'll look at how we can change that in our next step.
12:11 OK we'll close that down now we're not actually going to make any changes right now to our spark advance tables but what we do want to do is move over to our retard table.
12:21 Which is how the PCM deals with knock events.
12:24 And there's a couple of changes that I like to make here.
12:27 I'll point out here that the tables that you wish to adjust and the individual changes that you want to make to these tables will depend on personal preference and the particular job you're undergoing, the particular tuning task you've got in front of you.
12:44 My aim here is to show you some of the changes that I like to make in general and more importantly explain why I'm making these particular changes.
12:51 This will let you understand the function of that table and then from there you can decide on exactly what you do or don't want to do yourself.
13:01 OK let's start with our maximum knock retard.
13:04 This table here will define the absolute maximum amount of ignition retard that the PCM can command.
13:12 And you can see that in the high load high RPM area it can pull out up to 10 degrees which is a massive amount of ignition retard.
13:20 And in my opinion with a well tuned spark table this should be unnecessary.
13:26 Remember that the GM engineers are providing a calibration that could run on a wide range of octane fuels as well as a huge variety of operating conditions.
13:39 So they're providing a huge safety margin here by allowing up to 10 degrees to be removed from the timing.
13:45 Because we're going to be tuning the vehicle specifically to the fuel it's running on and in the local operating conditions, we're going to be tuning the engine to operate without knock.
13:56 And in this case I don't need to rely so heavily on the knock control system.
14:01 So what I'm going to do is highlight that whole table and I'm simply going to multiply it by a value of 0.75 and that is going to remove 25% from the table.
14:12 So you can see we've now go a maximum retard value of eight instead of 10.
14:17 Now that's still plenty of ignition retard.
14:19 It just means that the ECU cannot be quite so heavy handed in its ignition retard.
14:26 The next thing we're going to talk about here is our burst knock retard.
14:31 Now this is a separate type of knock control and I like to sort of consider this as a preemptive measure to try and prevent knock occurring before it actually does occur.
14:42 Our main knock control system is reactive not proactive.
14:46 What I mean by that is knock actually has to occur before it will retard the timing.
14:51 The burst knock strategy on the other hand is there primarily in response to sharp transient changes to retard timing to try and preempt knock occurring.
15:03 Now this may work adequately in a completely standard vehicle but we find the further we modify the vehicle, we can have problems with the burst knock affecting our delivered ignition timing and essentially retarding the timing needlessly.
15:18 So what I'm going to do in this case is click on our base versus cylinder air delta table.
15:23 And I'm simply going to set that entire table to a value of zero.
15:27 So this deactivates or disables the burst knock control strategy.
15:32 Now don't be concerned thinking that we've now disabled knock control in the PCM, that's not the case.
15:38 We still have knock control active, we've just disabled this burst knock control which is more as I've said a preemptive measure.
15:49 OK so that covers our retard.
15:52 I'm actually going to just pop back to our advance table and just talk you through a couple of other tables that modify the final ignition advance being delivered.
16:01 So you can see over here we have our spark correction.
16:05 And in particular one of the tables we'll talk abut here is our IAT spark modifier.
16:12 So this table here adjusts or modifies the final ignition advance being delivered to the engine based on cylinder air mass as well as intake air temperature.
16:22 And you can see by default that this table is actually quite aggressive and so much as when we're operating a wide open throttle high RPM we could expect to be operating around about 0.8 to perhaps 0.84 grammes per cylinder.
16:38 And you can see that at temperature of 30 degrees centigrade intake air temperature of 30 degrees centigrade, we're already removing three degrees of ignition advance.
16:48 Now how you choose to treat this particular table is totally up to you.
16:53 And it also depends a little bit on your ambient operating conditions.
16:58 What I generally like to do is make sure that under normal operating conditions, particularly the conditions that I'm seeing on the dyno that we don't have this table making drastic modifications to our spark advance.
17:12 And in this case our ambient temperature is in the low teens so I know that we shouldn't be getting near to this table.
17:18 If you're operating however in higher ambient operating conditions it's not uncommon to essentially shift all of these values here across to the right perhaps 10 or 15 degrees to reduce the aggressiveness of this table.
17:33 So instead of our retard beginning at 30 degrees intake air temperature, we might move that across and have that start at 40 or perhaps 45 degrees centigrade.
17:43 OK so we are going to leave this table for the moment but understand that it is there working on our ignition timing and if we're not seeing the ignition timing in the scanner but we expect this particular table or also our engine coolant temperature table may be the culprit.
18:01 In our engine coolant temperature table you can see that under our normal operating temperatures of sort of 18, 19 degrees centigrade, we do have no correction applied.
18:13 As we move higher in the temperature, above 100 particularly we do see some ignition timing being pulled.
18:19 But we'd like that there to help prevent knocks, I'm again leaving this table unmodified.
18:26 Let's move across and we're going to now talk about our fuel table.
18:30 There's a few things we're going to change here.
18:33 First of all we're going to start with our CAT over temp protection table and you can see we have a function here for catalyst over temp protection.
18:44 Now if you are running the engine with no catalytic converters which is quite common if you're building a race car for example or your local laws don't require catalytic converters, in this case we would want to disable this function.
19:01 And what this function does is the PCM is constantly calculating the likely exhaust gas temperature.
19:09 And if under high load, sustained high RPM operation, it calculates that the exhaust gas temperature is at a level that's become dangerous for the catalytic converters it will richen the air-fuel ratio in order to protect the catalyst and prevent damage and you can see that we've got a max enrichment value here which defines how much additional fuel the PCM can add in catalyst over temp protection mode.
19:39 So in our case we still have catalytic converters fitted to the vehicle so we are going to leave the CAT over temp protection function enabled.
19:48 Let's move back across and our next tab we're going to talk about is our power enrichment.
19:54 And this defines the target air-fuel ratio that the PCM is going to use in open loop mode.
20:01 And there's a few functions we're going to talk about here.
20:04 First of all you can see that unlike a standard operating system we now have a boost enrichment equivalence ratio target table.
20:12 This would be used if we are running a supercharged or turbo charged vehicle and gives us finer control over our air-fuel ratio versus boost pressure.
20:23 In our case we're not going to be using that table.
20:26 We're still naturally aspirated.
20:28 Moving across we have some parameters that define the conditions when power enrichment may become active, including manifold pressure and RPM.
20:38 Typically we have no need to change these base parameters.
20:43 What we do want to do though is have a look now at our power enrichment throttle position.
20:48 This defines essentially the throttle position above which we can command open loop mode.
20:55 So when the PCM can transition into power enrichment.
21:00 So we have a two dimensional table here of throttle position versus engine RPM.
21:05 And you can see here particularly up to 2500 RPM we've got a pedal, a target position of 60%.
21:11 And what this means is we actually need to apply quite a lot of throttle in order for the PCM to move into open loop mode.
21:19 This is done primarily for emissions as well as fuel economy however we can get an improvement in part throttle torque and power by allowing the PCM to move into power enrichment mode a little bit earlier.
21:33 So what I'm going to do here is highlight these values and I'm going to set them to 45 and then we'll just simply reduce the values as we go across the table.
21:45 And from 4500 RPM and above I'm going to set that to 5%.
21:51 So what this is gonna as I've mentioned is allow the PCM to move into open loop mode a little quicker.
21:57 What we want to do is make sure that when we are in fact cruising that we are running in closed loop mode.
22:05 And when we are commanding more power, when we're using more throttle opening that the PCM is able to move into open loop operation.
22:14 So we can confirm with our scanner to make sure that is the case a little bit later on when we start running the vehicle.
22:22 Now we move down to our actual power enrichment tables.
22:26 So these are where we enter our commanded air-fuel ratio for wide open throttle operation.
22:32 You can see that we have two here.
22:34 We've got a gas and an alcohol table.
22:37 In our case we're running fixed pump fuel, we're not running a flex fuel system so we're going to be making our tuning changes to our gas equivalence ratio table.
22:49 So again you can see we have a two dimensional table of equivalence ratio versus engine RPM.
22:55 Now for a lot of tuners moving to this platform, the term equivalence ration might not make a lot of sense.
23:02 So let's talk about what equivalence ratio is.
23:04 Essentially equivalence ratio is the fuel-air ratio and this is the inverse of lambda.
23:12 So if we look at how we could calculate these values, see what they actually mean in a more traditional sense.
23:20 Let's open up our calculator here and what we're going to do is take an arbitrary point here.
23:26 Let's look at 2250 RPM.
23:29 We have a target or commanded equivalence ratio of 1.13 So if I enter that into our calculator and then I use the little inverse function here, you can also achieve the same aim by dividing one by our equivalence ratio.
23:47 If we click on that we end up with our lambda target for that particular point.
23:53 In this case you can see that our lambda target is 0.884 or 0.885 So this gives us a number that is a little bit more useful and might make a little bit more sense.
24:05 We can convert this also into air-fuel ratio if you're more used to working in AFR values by multiplying by our stoichiometric AFR.
24:16 So in this case that is 14.67 and you can see that that gives us an AFR target of 12.98 to one.
24:25 So that's a quick and easy way of using the calculator to convert between equivalence ratio, lambda and AFR.
24:34 If we want to convert directly from equivalence ratio to air-fuel ratio we can simply enter our stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in this case 14.67 and divide that by our equivalence ratio value which in this case for our example was 1.13 You can see that that gets us to exactly the same point.
24:58 Alright let's make some changes to this table to preempt the likely air-fuel ratio targets that I'm going to want to run on this engine.
25:08 In this particular course we're not looking at how to decide on a particular air-fuel ratio for our engine but rather how to tune the engine to achieve a particular air-fuel ratio.
25:20 For our initial set up that we're going to need to go through what I like to do is start with setting our equivalence ratio table to a single value.
25:30 So when we're optimising our VE tables, we're not chasing a moving target.
25:36 So what I'm going to do is start by selecting an air-fuel ratio target that I know is going to be a nice safe operating point under wide open throttle conditions.
25:45 Let's set that to 0.85 lambda so if I enter 0.85 and convert that to equivalence ratio we can see that is the equivalence ratio 1.176 So I'm going to enter that in our entire equivalence ratio target table.
26:02 I'm gonna come back to this later and actually set this to some more sensible values once we've got our VE tables dialled in.
26:10 So I'm going to close that table down now.
26:14 Two more parameters we're going to look at here.
26:15 First of all we have our enrichment ramp in rate.
26:19 So this is how quickly the PCM will richen up the air-fuel ratio target as we move into power enrichment mode.
26:29 And by default it's set to 0.1 which slightly delays the enrichment.
26:35 We can get a slightly crisper response by setting this to a value of one.
26:40 Values above one don't actually make any difference.
26:43 So this is where we want to set that particular value.
26:48 Next we'll talk about our power enrichment delay.
26:51 Which can on the face of it look a little confusing.
26:55 We have this set by default to 5000 RPM.
26:58 Now this parameter isn't actually valid for GM cars, this is valid for some GM truck applications.
27:06 So it shouldn't affect our tuning in any way shape or form.
27:10 However just for the sake of completeness, I like to set that to a value of zero.
27:16 Now while we're not tuning a turbo or supercharged vehicle here just as a matter of good housekeeping it's always a good idea to make sure that we copy across any changes we make to our equivalence ratio table our power enrichment equivalence ratio table into our boosted table as well so I'm just going to do that now.
27:38 Highlight the entire table using the control c function, and then I'm going to paste that into our boost power enrichment table.
27:48 Now we shouldn't end up getting into that table anyway, you can see the enable manifold pressure is set to 110kPa, but just to make sure that there's no chance of any problems occurring, I just like to make sure that both of those tables are set the same.
28:06 Let's move on now into our open and closed loop tab.
28:10 Now one of the first steps we're going to be doing when we get the engine running is we're going to be properly calibrating, properly tuning our volumetric efficiency table.
28:20 Now there are a number of ways of doing this.
28:25 The best, the most accurate way and in my opinion probably also the easiest way is to do this using an accurate wide band metre that we can connect up to our HP tuner's interface.
28:40 And then we can calculate the error between our measured air-fuel ratio and our commanded.
28:46 And then we can apply these corrections, these errors to our VE table to correct our VE table.
28:53 Another technique that is commonly used by a lot of tuners is to use the short term and long term fuel trims to help calibrate that table.
29:01 If you are going to be using the fuel trims to help calibrate our VE table though, understandably this is not going to work in open loop as those trims won't have any effect.
29:13 The most accurate way as I've mentioned is to use a wide band so that's how we're going to perform our tuning for this worked example.
29:20 So in order to use the wide band what we need to do is start by putting the engine into open loop mode so it won't be using feedback from our exhaust oxygen sensors.
29:32 So there's a couple of changes or there's a few changes we need to make here.
29:36 First of all we're going to disable our long term fuel trims and we can do that here by simply changing our long term fuel trim enable parameters.
29:47 So what I'm going to do is start with our minimum engine coolant temperature and I'm going to set that to the maximum value which you can see is 256 degrees.
29:56 And our maximum engine coolant temp I'm going to set to minus 40.
30:01 So it essentially means that we're never within those operating parameters and our long term fuel trims will not become active.
30:09 Now we need to move across to our closed loop enable, the parameters I'm looking at here are for our short term fuel trims.
30:18 And what we want to do again is max out these particular parameters so that our short term fuel trims are never going to be active.
30:27 So we'll just do that now.
30:30 That disables our short term fuel trims.
30:33 Now we also have a range of tables that are multipliers that are going to affect our commanded air-fuel ratio under open loop conditions.
30:42 And so we're not chasing a moving target again we want to make sure that these tables are all set to one.
30:49 So that they're not going to affect our commanded air-fuel ratio.
30:53 So let's go through these tables now.
30:55 We're going to start with our open loop gas table.
30:58 And with these tables all I'm going to do is highlight the entire table and set them to a value of 1.0 We can also do the same for our park neutral table.
31:11 So we'll just move through and perform the same task to any of these tables that are modifying our commanded equivalence ratio.
31:28 Alright so we've changed all of the tables there so that our open loop commanded air-fuel ratio will remain consistent.
31:37 We're also going to move across to our deceleration fuel cut off tab.
31:42 And again so that we don't have the PCM cutting off our fuel injection under trailing throttle when we're backing off the throttle, we're going to disable our deceleration fuel cut off as well.
31:56 So we can see our parameters here to do that and again what I'm going to do is max out all of these values so we'll set our enable temperature to 300, likewise we'll set our disable temp to maximum and our RPM enable and disable to maximum.
32:16 So this is going to prevent our deceleration fuel cut becoming active.
32:21 The next change we're going to make is to ensure that the PCM is always using the speed density system.
32:28 So if we click on our air flow tab, and under dynamic air flow you can see we have our high RPM disable and our high RPM re enable.
32:38 And what I want to do is again just max out both of these values.
32:42 So that's going to mean that the PCM is always using the speed density system.
32:48 Alright that takes care of most of our changes in our engine tab.
32:53 Now we're going to move onto our engine diagnostics and there's a few changes we need to make here.
32:59 First of all we see we've got our mass air flow sensor fail settings so because we want to be operating in our speed density system it's important for the PCM to detect the mass air flow sensor as faulty.
33:13 And to do that we simply set our MAF frequency fail high and low values to zero hertz.
33:20 So essentially any time the engine is running, the PCM will see the mass air flow sensor as being faulty.
33:27 At the same time we also need to make some changes to our diagnostic trouble codes relating to our mass air flow sensor.
33:34 And we'll come down to our mass air flow sensor settings here so we're looking in particular at our P0101, 102 and 103 settings.
33:48 So we can see by default we have our check engine light will become visible and we also have them set to MIL on second error.
33:59 So what we want to do is set all of these to no MIL light.
34:04 Now this means that the error will still occur, it will still be reported but the check engine light will not activate on the dash.
34:13 And this is another area that a lot of people make a mistake and will set this to no error reported.
34:19 And it is essential that the PCM does detect the mass air flow sensor as faulty.
34:26 If it doesn't, it won't revert to speed density and the engine won't run.
34:31 So I'm just also going to untick just for the sake of completeness our SES enable box as well.
34:37 So now we should get an error reported but we're not going to end up with the check engine light becoming visible.
34:45 Now the range of other modifications you may or may not want to make through here will depend on what exactly you've done to the engine.
34:53 We've talked about the catalytic converter and one of the common changes we would want to make is to our P0420 and 0430 errors which are for our catalyst's system efficiency bank one and two.
35:07 If we have removed those catalytic converters, we would need to disable those fault codes.
35:15 Alright so we've now got a calibration that's set up and ready to go.
35:20 As we've discussed we do need to set up our VE tables before we can actually flash this into our PCM.
35:28 We're going to look at how we can do that in the next steps.