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Stoichiometric AFR

Understanding AFR

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So if at Stoichiometric AFR all the oxygen molecules will find fuel molecules to burn with, then how could oxygen sensor measure how rich is the mixture??

My question in other words would be if at Stoichiometric AFR all oxygen molecules will burn and we will end up with an exhaust gas that has no oxygen then my wideband will read AFR of lambda 1

So if we go rich in fuel we will still end up with an exhaust gas with no oxygen!! Then how can my wideband meter read 0.90 and 0.80 lambda for example??

For tuning purposes there's always some measurable amount of leftover oxygen, even when you run rich of stoichiometric. It's just a very small percentage.

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