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Practical Engine Building: Step 7: Short Block Assembly

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Step 7: Short Block Assembly


00:00 - So we're at the point now where we can begin assembling the engine short block.
00:03 We've got all of our componentry cleaned and laid out, and the first part of this step involves measuring and checking all of the clearances inside the engine.
00:13 What we're doing here is confirming everything that was done by our machine shop, and making sure that it's exactly what we wanted.
00:20 We're going to be making several different measurements here.
00:23 We're going to be checking our piston to bore clearance.
00:25 This will also give us the opportunity to check our bores for any out of round and any taper that may be present.
00:33 Next we're going to be flipping the engine over, we're going to be checking our main bearing clearances and then we'll also be checking our conrod big end bearing clearances.
00:43 Lastly a little further into the process, we're going to be doing a dummy assembly that will allow us to check the thrust bearing clearance for the crankshaft.
00:52 So let's get started with our piston to bore clearance.
00:56 In order to measure the piston to bore clearance, I'm going to take our CP forged piston, and we're going to measure the skirt diameter.
01:04 What I've done is I've grabbed our micrometer and I've already gone ahead and I've measured that skirt diameter.
01:11 Once we've done this what we're going to do is zero our bore gauge.
01:15 I've already got our bore gauge set up with the correct fitting for this particular measurement so we've got the right width for our bore gauge to suit our 86 millimetre bore, and what I'm going to do is go through and just zero the bore gauge in our micrometer.
01:53 Once we've got our bore gauge zeroed, we can lock off the adjustment and we're going to check our piston to bore clearance.
01:59 We're going to be measuring this in two planes.
02:01 We're going to be measuring in line with the wrist pin as well as perpendicular to this.
02:06 This allows us to check for any out of round.
02:08 We'll also be measuring several points up and down the bores in both orientations just to check for any taper.
02:16 So let's go through and check that now.
02:39 So we've gone through there and checked our piston to bore clearance.
02:42 Now you'll remember right at the start our specification from CP was 3.5 thousandths of an inch.
02:48 And we're already slightly above this with our standard block bore.
02:53 And what we found during the machining process was that number one cylinder was showing a slight amount of out of round.
03:00 So we decided to slightly increase our piston to bore clearance on the basis of this.
03:06 Allow some of that out of round to be honed out.
03:09 And also given the fact we are going to be shooting for relatively high power levels, a little bit of additional piston to bore clearance here was deemed an advantage to us.
03:20 So our target was to increase that to four thousandths of an inch.
03:24 Now to add a little bit of complexity into the equation here we are actually using a metric bore gauge.
03:31 So what we need to understand is that four thousandths of an inch works out to be just a touch over a tenth of a millimetre.
03:39 So that's essentially what we've got here.
03:41 And when we're looking for our bore clearances as well as out of round, what we're trying to do is make sure everything is at that minimum of a tenth of a millimetre.
03:51 We also want to make sure that the bores are round.
03:56 There's always a small amount of tolerance allowable in here and if I saw anything that was out of round by more than about one hundredth of a millimetre, this would be cause for some concern.
04:07 So at this point we're comfortable with our piston to bore clearance and we're comfortable with the condition of our cylinders.
04:13 We can now flip the engine block over and we'll look at our main bearings.
04:18 Before we can measure the main bearing clearances in the block we need to go through and measure the main bearing journals on the crankshaft.
04:25 Each of these journals needs to be carefully measured with our micrometer and we need to measure the journal in several locations so that we can confirm that there's no taper and that the journal is perfectly round.
04:37 Once we've gone through and confirmed all of the seven bearing journal diameters, we can then use our micrometer to zero our bore gauge.
04:46 Now with a long inline six cylinder like this, and our relatively short bore gauge, we can see that we're not going to be able to access and measure each of the main bearing journals from one end of the block.
04:59 In order to do this what we can do is assemble the bearing caps one by one and measure using our bore gauge as we go.
05:07 For this demonstration we're simply going to have a look at the two front journals, number one and number two in the block and see what our oil clearances are there.
05:16 So let's do that now.
05:21 With our main bearing clearances we've actually chosen to make some adjustments to the factory clearances.
05:27 Factory specification is 1.6 thousandths of an inch, which equates to approximately four hundredths of a millimetre.
05:34 That's quite tight for our application with high RPM as well as high horsepower.
05:38 So what we've done is we've chosen to increase this slightly to 2.5 thousandths of an inch, which equates to just a touch over six hundredths of a millimetre.
05:48 And we can see that that's pretty well exactly where we're sitting now, just a little bit over, six hundredths of a millimetre.
05:57 So of course we'd go through and check all of these clearances, this is just a rinse and repeat of what I'm doing now.
06:04 When we are checking these clearances, we want to make sure that we're checking them perpendicular to the parting face of the bearing cap.
06:13 And we also need to be very careful because there is an oil groove that runs through the middle of these bearings, so we want to be checking on each side of that oil groove.
06:22 So at this point we've gone through and we've checked all of our main bearing clearances and we're comfortable that these are where we want them to be at just over six hundredths of a millimetre or 2.5 thou.
06:33 Lastly we're going to check our big end oil clearances.
06:38 Now this is a similar process where we're going to start by checking all of the big end journals on the crankshaft.
06:44 Again we're measuring these with our micrometer at multiple points so that we can confirm that there's no taper on these journals and we can also confirm that the journal is perfectly round.
06:57 Once we've done this we can zero our bore gauge, and we're going to be using our bore gauge in our connecting rods, which have been torqued down with the bearing shells installed.
07:07 So let's have a look at that now.
07:09 For our demonstration here, I'm just going to have a look at the bearing clearances on a single conrod.
07:15 Of course we'd go through the entire set to confirm that everything is on our specification.
07:20 Now the clearance we're looking for here is two thousandths of an inch.
07:24 Again with our bore gauge reading in metric, we're going to convert that across to hundredths of a millimetre and two thousandths of an inch is equivalent to five hundredths of a millimetre so that's the clearance we're looking for.
07:37 I've got our connecting rod here, and I'm just going to insert our bore gauge into the connecting rod.
07:44 Again we're looking at the clearance or the measurement perpendicular to the parting face of the connecting rod.
07:51 And as I just cycle this through the zero point we can see that we are measuring exactly five hundredths of a millimetre.
07:57 Now while we are making these measurements we can also move the bore gauge across the face of the bearing shell and this will allow us again to see if there's any taper on that bearing shell.
08:08 So at this point we've checked and confirmed all of our clearances and we're comfortable that all of these are correct.
08:15 Obviously as we've discussed we still need to check our thrust clearance once the crankshaft is assembled into the engine block and we'll look at that a little further through this step.
08:24 We can now move on.
08:26 Our next task is to file fit our piston rings.
08:30 And before we can do this we need to know what sort of ring end gaps we're going to be expecting to run.
08:36 Now taking the information from CP's recommendations, they're recommending a piston ring end gap of 4.5 thou per inch of bore for high performance street applications.
08:48 Now while we will be running a high boost level on this particular engine, because it is running on E85 fuel, it does tend to run reasonably cool so for that purpose, for that reason I'm going to retain that recommendation.
09:02 With our 3.386 inch bore diameter that gives us a piston ring end gap for our top ring, just a touch over 15 thou.
09:13 For our second ring, the recommendations from CP are four to eight thousandths of an inch larger than our top ring.
09:21 So what we're going to do here is target 19 thou.
09:25 For our oil control rails these require a minimum of 15 thousandths of an inch.
09:32 I've already gone through and checked all of these and as is often the case, they are already above the minimum recommendation of 15 thou so there's no work to do here.
09:41 We're going to be focusing solely on our top ring and our second ring.
09:46 Now I've already installed all of the second rings into our 2JZ block.
09:51 I've squared those up and we're just going to go through and check those measurements now.
09:56 Remember we're looking for 15 thou plus our four thou clearance so 19 thou.
10:03 Let's see where we sit at the moment.
10:07 So I've just got my 19 thou feeler blade, and I'm just going to slip that in between the ring end gaps and what we can find here is that these second rings are actually gapped perfectly at 19 thou straight out of the box.
10:24 This is always a pleasant surprise and obviously gives us no work to do here on our second rings.
10:31 So our second rings are ready to go, we're going to now concentrate on our top rings.
10:36 So we'll now remove the second rings and we'll be able to see what our top ring end gap is like.
10:49 We'll start with number one cylinder, I've got my top ring here.
10:52 Just going to install that into the top of the bore, and then we'll use our ring squaring tool to locate that correctly down the bore, so we can measure the ring end gap.
11:12 Now remember for our top rings we're looking for 15 thou so let's just start with a feeler blade at 12 thou, we'll slip that in and see where we are to start with.
11:25 It's a little bit bigger than that so we'll just creep up on it.
11:32 OK so our 13 thou feeler blade slides in reasonably easily on the inside diameter but what it does do is it starts to get tighter as we get out to the outside of the bore so this indicates that we have a ring end gap that isn't quite parallel.
11:49 We're going to need to correct that and we're going to be removing approximately two thousandths of an inch.
11:56 So we're gonna go through that process now.
12:19 Just going to start by zeroing our electric ring file.
12:23 And I'm just going to be focusing on removing a little bit of additional material from the outside diameter of that ring end gap to true up or square up that end gap.
12:33 So let's go through and we'll take a small cut now and then we'll compare and check our work.
12:58 Now for my first adjustment there I've made a really really small change to the end gap and really what I'm focusing on more than removing material here is just trying to square the ring gap initially.
13:09 So let's just drop that back down the bore and we'll see how we got on.
13:21 So I'm using my same 13 thou feeler blade.
13:23 Remember it already slid in quite nicely from the inside of the ring, got a little bit tighter out towards the bore wall.
13:31 And it's still just slightly tight out by that bore wall.
13:35 That indicates we've got a little bit more work to do, so we'll just continue now and get that ring end gap correct.
14:43 Alright we'll just measure this now with a 14 thou feeler blade and we're still just a little bit tight out by the bore wall.
14:53 So we'll just continue now, I'm going to need to remove a little bit more material from the outside diameter of that ring to square it up and we've still got a little bit of material left on the inside to get us out to 15 thou.
15:05 So we'll make another cut now.
15:41 Now the adjustment I made there was really focusing mostly on removing material from the outside of the ring just to try and get that ring end gap square.
15:52 So we'll put it back in and we'll see if that was a success.
16:04 OK so we've now got our ring end gap pretty well squared up but we've still got a little bit of material to remove, we're measuring 14 thou at the moment, remember we need to be at 15.
16:14 So we'll take another cut, remove another thousandth of an inch.
17:11 OK so we've now got our ring end gap square and we're now measuring just on 15 thousandths of an inch.
17:18 So we're going to move on now and I'll continue to gap the rest of the top rings.
17:34 So we've gone through and we've set the ring end gaps for our top rings there.
17:38 The last task we have is to go through and just deburr any of the rough edges from the filing process so I'm just going to do that now.
17:56 Alright so with our ring filing complete we can now move on.
17:59 Now we're at a point where we can begin assembling our pistons onto our conrods.
18:03 Now the CP forged pistons that we're using here are a fully floating design and they use wire locks to retain the wrist pin.
18:10 So you can refer back to the practical engine building skills section of the course to see how to correctly assemble these.
18:17 Now for the assembly I'm going to be using an engine assembly lube, a moly based assembly lube here.
18:23 This just provides a little bit more protection to the wrist pin and the components during initial startup.
18:30 So what I'll do is just begin by applying a liberal coat of this assembly lube to the wrist pin boss.
18:38 Now once we've got the wrist pin boss lubricated.
18:41 I'm going to begin by installing one of our wire locks.
18:45 Just going to push the wire lock down into the pin boss, and I'm just going to compress that with my thumbs while I do so.
18:54 I'm just going to push it down far enough that it can locate in the receiver groove.
19:00 Once I've done that we can install our wrist pin and we can just gently push this across and that will force that wrist pin into the correct location.
19:10 Once we've done this we can just remove our wrist pin back out of the piston and we're going to get our connecting rod, I'm also going to apply some moly lubricant to the bushing, the small end bushing in our Carrillo conrod, and now we can install the wrist pin through the connecting rod.
19:31 With some conrod designs we do need to be careful about the orientation of the connecting rod as there's often an oiling spray hole in the conrod body that's designed to lubricate the thrust side of the cylinder wall.
19:44 In this case there are no such lubricating holes on our Carrillo conrods and we can install the connecting rod in any orientation.
19:52 We do want to be careful here though for consistency, we want to make sure that every conrod is installed in the same orientation on the piston.
20:01 So when we're doing this we want to take note of the marks on the underside of the piston and we can locate that in the same relationship to the locating tangs for our rod bearings.
20:13 So let's install our first connecting rod here, and I'm just going to push the wrist pin through the connecting rod.
20:20 Now we can install our second wire lock, and what we want to do is just be careful with the orientation of our wire lock in relation to the little recess that allows us to remove the wire lock.
20:32 So just going to click one side of that wire lock down into the receiver groove and then we should just be able to push the wire lock home by hand.
20:42 Now if you do struggle with this what you can do is use a small flat blade jewellers screwdriver here.
20:50 It's very important though that you don't try levering off the aluminium piston as you can easily damage it.
20:56 What we want to do instead is use that screwdriver just to push directly down on the top of the wire lock.
21:03 Should be reasonably easy to install.
21:06 If you're having trouble then stop, remove the wire lock and try again.
21:10 OK so that's the process we're going to go through, we've got one piston installed correctly, I'm going to go through and complete the rest of our set.
21:38 So we've got our pistons and our conrods completely assembled, we can now move on and install our piston rings.
21:46 Before we install the rings on the pistons, we need to understand the orientation of the ring end gaps that we're targeting or aiming for.
21:53 Now I'm going to be using this particular diagram which you'll remember from our engine building fundamentals course to help me align the rings gap consistently across all of our six pistons.
22:05 Now we're going to be starting from the bottom and working our way up.
22:09 We'll be starting with the oil control ring expander, followed by the oil control ring rails, then our second ring and finally our top ring.
22:18 When it comes to the oil control ring expander and rails, these are really easy to install by hand, but for the second ring and the top ring, I will be using a relatively cheap ring expander tool.
22:31 This is just going to help me prevent any chance of damaging the rings during installation.
22:37 Now I've marked the orientation of our pistons as they will sit in the cylinders, so I've just put an arrow facing forward on the front of each of the pistons.
22:48 And just for simplicity so it's easier to understand exactly what I'm doing, I'm just going to balance our conrod here on the bench so you can watch the process.
22:58 So we'll start by getting our oil control ring expander.
23:02 And in particular with the oil control ring expander, we want to make sure that the two ends face down when we install this on the piston.
23:11 And for our oil control ring expander, what we're looking for is an orientation with the end somewhere on the right hand side of our piston.
23:21 So I'm just going to gently expand that out, and we'll drop it down, and once that's installed in the oil control ring groove, just going to rotate that around until our end gap is in the correct orientation.
23:35 Now we're going to move on and do our oil control ring rails.
23:40 We've got two of those.
23:41 Now these are really easy to install just by spiralling them onto the piston.
23:46 And what we're actually going to do here is start by installing the top oil control ring rail, and then we will install the bottom oil control ring rail.
23:55 For our top rail we want to orientate the end gap on the left hand side of the piston.
24:01 So what I'm going to do is just start by putting one end of that rail into the ring groove.
24:06 And you can see that it just easily spirals down into location.
24:11 We've got that installed correctly.
24:13 Of course you don't have to be absolutely perfect or precise with your ring gap location, it's very easy to manipulate or alter that slightly later on.
24:24 Let's put our second oil control ring rail on, and this time we're going to be installing the end gap as we can see here, and we'll just get the rail started, and then again I'll just spiral that into location.
24:40 With any of the rings we only want to open the ring or expand the ring the bare minimum required in order to get the ring to fit down over the piston.
24:51 OK so at this point we've got our oil control ring installed and we also want to just double check and make sure that our ring end gap, our expander is correctly orientated and that there is no overlap with the ends of our oil control ring expander.
25:11 Now we can move on and install our second ring.
25:14 So we'll get that, with any of our rings we always want to be very careful that the orientation of the ring is correct and what I mean by this is that the ring is facing the correct way.
25:24 So we can see that we have a mark here on the top surface of our ring.
25:29 Any time we see a mark like this generally is the direction that the ring should face up.
25:34 So what I'm going to do is just install this into our ring expander tool.
25:40 And I'm just going to gently slip that down over the piston until we get down to our second ring groove, and we'll just release our tool there, and allow that to sit down into our second ring groove.
25:57 Now our second ring groove, we want our end gap to orientate over to the left hand side of our piston like so.
26:05 Finally we'll install our top compression ring, and the process is exactly the same.
26:11 This time we're going to be locating the gap to the right hand side of the piston.
26:16 So again I'll just expand that out the bare minimum and allow that to slip down and locate in the ring groove.
26:23 Gonna have one last check that our ring end gaps are all aligned correctly and that's our first piston done.
26:31 We'll put that back on our stand and move on with the rest of our set.
26:40 So we've completed installing all of the rings onto our pistons and we've orientated all of our ring end gaps.
26:46 We can now move on and begin assembling components into our engine block.
26:50 We've flipped our 2JZ block upside down here on the engine stand and it's time to install the crankshaft.
26:56 Before we can install the crankshaft, there is a specific step that is needed here with the 2JZ which is to install the under piston oil squirters.
27:06 So we've already gone ahead and we've installed the six under piston oil squirters into the engine block and now we can move on and begin installing our bearings.
27:16 Now if we've used a bore gauge to check our bearing clearances then what we'll find is that the bore gauge will have left some ugly looking marks on the bearing surface, and what we can do prior to installing our bearings is to clean those marks up.
27:33 A little trick I use here is just to get a piece of fine emory paper and what we're actually using is not the abrasive surface of the emory paper, what we're using is the backing paper, and I've just sprayed a lubricant onto that, and what we want to do is place the paper into the bearing shell.
27:51 Now we'll just gently rub that backwards and forwards and just the abrasive, the slight abrasive nature of that paper will just remove those marks so our bearing surface looks like new again.
28:04 Now it's important if you are going to use that technique, please make sure that you don't use the abrasive side of the paper, that will cause damage to your bearing shell very very quickly.
28:15 Once we've gone and cleaned down those marks off our bearing shell, we can just clean down our bearing and we're ready to install the bearings into the block.
28:24 When it comes to installing the bearing shells, we want to be very careful with our main bearings here to make sure that we install the correct shell in the correct location.
28:31 There are upper and lower shells, and as we can see here, the upper shells have some oil supply holes.
28:38 So what I'm going to do is begin installing these.
28:41 We just want to locate the bearing location tang in the block and then gently press with our thumbs and move the bearing into location.
28:50 We'll go through and install the rest of our upper shells now.
28:59 OK so we've got all of our main bearing shells installed into the block.
29:03 What I'm going to do now is apply some lubricating oil and for this purpose I am just using a 10 weight mineral based oil.
29:11 Of course you also have the option of using a specific assembly lubricant if you'd prefer.
29:16 So what I'm going to do here is apply a liberal coat of the oil to the bearing shell.
29:21 And then just using my finger, spread it across the entire surface of the shell, so that we've got a good coat of protectant oil there when we put the crankshaft into location.
29:54 OK so our bearing shells are all lubricated and now we can actually pick up our crankshaft and drop that into location.
30:00 We have the option here of installing the main studs, which we're using for this engine, either before or after the crankshaft is installed.
30:08 I prefer to install the studs after because there's less chance of us scraping one of the crankshaft bearing surfaces down a stud as the crankshaft is being lowered into location, which can end up damaging the journal.
30:22 So let's install the crankshaft now.
30:23 What we're going to be doing here is dropping the crankshaft very carefully down onto those bearings, just making sure that it's lowered into place squarely with the block.
30:46 OK so our crankshaft is in location now.
30:49 Remember we also haven't checked our thrust clearances yet.
30:54 So that's an important aspect we will be checking during our short block assembly.
30:58 At this point we're at a position where we can install our thrust bearing washers.
31:04 So we're going to go ahead and do that now.
31:10 What we want to do with our thrust bearing washers is make sure that we have the correct washer in the correct location.
31:16 These are separated into upper and lower shells or halves.
31:20 What we can see is that one half of the shell has a locating tab on it, and this locates into the main bearing caps.
31:29 So at the moment what I'm going to be doing is installing the two upper halves into the engine block.
31:37 Before we install the thrust bearing washers, we're going to just apply a light coat of assembly lubricant and for this particular purpose I prefer to use a moly based lubricant as opposed to engine oil.
31:51 This just gives a little bit more protection to these thrust surfaces while the engine is initially being started and gaining oil pressure.
32:00 So what I'm going to do is install one half, drop it down and rotate it into location, we'll move the crankshaft to the other extreme of its travel and install the other half.
32:10 We wanna be very careful that we install the thrust washers with the correct surface facing outwards as well.
32:16 The surface that faces the crankshaft has a couple of slots machined into it which promotes oil flow to the thrust surface of the crankshaft.
32:26 So let's install that now.
32:31 And just gently rotate that into location.
32:34 I've just slid the crankshaft forward in the block.
32:36 We'll grab the other half of the thrust washer, and again I'll just apply a small amount of moly lubricant to that, smear it around and then the second bearing washer is ready to be installed.
33:06 OK so with our thrust washers installed we can now go ahead and install our main studs into the engine block.
33:14 I'm just going to do that now.
33:15 We don't need to torque these into place, these don't need to be tightened too far.
33:20 All we're going to do is use an allen key here just to tighten them just a little bit beyond finger tight.
33:27 So let's go and do that now.
33:52 With our ARP main studs now fastened correctly into the engine block we can fit our main bearing caps.
33:58 I've already gone ahead and fitted the bearing shells to the caps.
34:02 This is the same process you saw me use for fitting the bearing shells into the engine block.
34:06 So I'm going to add some lubricating oil to the bearing shells again and drop each one into location over the studs.
34:29 So we've fitted all of the bearing caps there except for our number four or centre main cap, and the reason I haven't fitted that one at this point is because we also need to fit the remaining thrust washers into place.
34:41 So I'm going to grab those now and again, we'll just apply a thin coat of moly based lubricant and we'll drop these into location.
34:51 Again we just wanna pay careful attention to make sure that we have the correct face against the crankshaft.
35:15 Alright with our thrust washers now correctly installed and located correctly, we can lubricate the bearing shell on our number four main and carefully drop that into location.
35:26 And as we do this we wanna be very careful that those locating tabs on our thrust washers do locate correctly into the recesses in the bearing cap.
35:51 So it shouldn't require any force to drop that into location.
35:54 If it does take any undue amount of force, then we need to remove everything and check and find out what's going on.
36:00 So at the moment everything's been dropped into location, I haven't tightened anything down.
36:04 Now what we're going to do is go through and fit our ARP washers and then our ARP nuts.
36:11 With all of these components, as we install them what we're going to be doing is applying a small amount of the supplied ARP moly based lubricant to both sides of the washer as well as a little bit to the underside of the nut and the threads.
36:26 This is just going to ensure that our torque is accurate, that our torque figures generate the required amount of clamping from these fasteners.
36:35 So let's go ahead and do that now.
36:40 With everything loosely installed, now what we're going to do is start by pulling the caps down into the register on the block, and we don't need to do this using a torque wrench, we can just use a ratchet to do this relatively quickly.
36:53 We're not really applying any torque at this point, we're just pulling the caps down so that they're located in the register in the block.
37:00 We want to do this a little bit at a time.
37:02 If we tighten one side of the stud down completely, this is going to pull the cap down on an angle, so we want to move between each side of the caps pulling them down little bit by little bit.
37:14 So let's go through that process now.
37:30 With all of our main caps now pulled down into the register, we can get our torque wrench and we can torque the fasteners to specification.
37:37 ARP supply specifications for these studs and request 60 foot pound, and we're going to be doing that in three equal stages.
37:46 First to 20, then to 40, and finally to 60 foot pound.
37:50 Now the order we're going to be torquing the fasteners down in is the factory recommendation from Toyota.
37:57 We're going to be starting at the centre main cap and working our way out.
38:00 So let's go through that process now.
38:21 Once we've gone through and we've completed our final stage of torque, it's always a good idea just to go through in line and check each fastener individually.
38:30 This will just make sure that we haven't accidentally missed out any of our fasteners.
38:35 What we wanna do here is just check that each fastener clicks off at 60 foot pound.
38:51 OK so we've now tightened down our main bearing caps.
38:54 Everything's tightened up correctly, and what we can do now is check and make sure that our crankshaft rotates relatively smoothly.
39:04 Now what we're looking for here is a crankshaft that rotates easily.
39:08 We shouldn't require undue force to turn it.
39:11 But it's not going to sit there and spin in the block by itself for three or four revolutions after we stop.
39:18 So what we're doing is just making sure that it's nice and smooth and isn't requiring undue amounts of force in order to rotate it.
39:26 OK so at this point we're going to now set up our dial gauge and we'll check our thrust clearance which we talked about a little bit earlier.
39:35 We've got our dial gauge installed on the snout of the crankshaft and what I'm going to do now is just pry the crankshaft backwards and forwards inside the engine block to check the thrust clearance.
39:43 Now the factory specification for the thrust clearance here is from anything from just under one thousandth of an inch, to just under nine thousandths of an inch.
39:53 So there's a fairly wide range that we're going to be happy with.
39:57 So let's just check what we've got now.
40:06 So by moving the crankshaft back and forwards against the two thrust surfaces, I can see that we've got just on two thousandths of an inch of thrust clearance, so this is obviously within our specification so we're comfortable with that.
40:18 We can move on and we can start installing our piston and conrod assemblies.
40:23 Before installing the piston and conrod assemblies into our block, I've gone through and I've fitted the bearing shells into both the body of the conrod, as well as the cap for the conrods.
40:34 Now when we're installing our piston and conrod assemblies, we're actually going to be installing two piston and rods together.
40:41 We're going to be installing the two cylinders that happen to be at the same point on the engine cycle.
40:47 We'll start with number one cylinder, and at the same time number six cylinder is the other cylinder that's at the same point in the engine cycle.
40:55 We're going to begin here by rotating our crankshaft until we have number one and number six at bottom dead centre.
41:03 Now this is important because this allows us to correctly and easily fit the cap to the conrod.
41:10 Now that we've got that, let's grab our first piston and rod assembly.
41:17 And what we're going to do is apply a liberal coat of lubricating oil to the big end bearing shell.
41:26 Now at the same time we also want to lubricate the ring pack as well as the skirt of the piston.
41:32 So I'm just going to apply a liberal coat of oil to all of those surfaces, and then once we've applied that oil, we can just spread it around using a clean finger.
41:45 So at this point our piston and conrod assembly is ready to install into the cylinder.
41:50 And what we want to do now is get our ring compression tool and we want to prepare that as well.
41:56 So here we're using a tapered ring compressor.
41:59 I've made sure that it's already clean before I've started, and again I'm just going to apply a liberal coat of engine oil to the inside of the ring compressor.
42:12 Once we've done that we can then fit our piston and rod assembly into the ring compressor.
42:18 We wanna be really careful when we do this to make sure that we have the orientation of the piston and the connecting rod correct, as it's going to be lowered into the engine block.
42:28 Now for convenience I've already marked a front facing arrow on all of these pistons from our previous step so we know which way they're to be located.
42:38 The reason that this is important because the orientation of the piston will affect where the intake valve and exhaust valve pockets are.
42:46 Now we can locate our piston and rod assembly into the number one bore.
42:51 And I just wanna drop the skirt gently down into the bore and I'll get everything nice and square, make sure that the orientation is correct, and then just push the piston down with my two thumbs.
43:04 Now it should be very easy to push the piston down into the bore.
43:08 If there's any resistance we want to remove the piston and rod assembly and check to find out what's causing that.
43:15 Don't force the piston and rod into the block.
43:18 Now that we've got the piston sitting in the top of the bore we need to drop it down so that it's sitting on the crankshaft journal.
43:25 And in order to do this I'm going to use my left hand from the underside of the block to support the connecting rod, and I'm going to use this to help lower the connecting rod down and make sure that it contacts the big end journal of the crankshaft correctly.
43:40 So let's do that now.
43:49 OK so our piston and rod assembly is installed.
43:52 Gonna go through the same process with number six.
43:54 Then we'll rotate the engine over and we'll install the big end caps.
44:17 OK we've got our engine block rotated over, we've got number one and number six piston and rod assemblies installed.
44:24 We're now going to install the big end caps onto the connecting rods.
44:28 Now again we need to apply a generous coat of lubricating oil to those bearing shells before we install them.
44:34 And we'll also be using the Carrillo supplied rod bolt assembly lubricant.
45:07 Now when we're applying assembly lubricant to a rod bolt we want to put a light coat of the assembly lubricant down the threads.
45:14 It's also really important to apply a small amount of the lubricant to the underhead of the bolt.
45:39 OK so we've installed the bearing caps there.
45:41 Now all I've done at the moment is I've snugged those bearing caps down onto the dowels.
45:47 I haven't actually gone about torquing the bearing shells down or the bearing caps down.
45:51 In this instance we have two options.
45:53 We can torque them down individually, or alternatively which is what I'm going to do, we can go through once all of the piston and rod assemblies have been installed in the block, and then we can torque all of the bearing caps together.
46:06 So let's move on now.
46:08 We'll rotate the block back through and we'll continue installing the other four piston and rod assemblies.
46:23 So at this point all of our piston and conrod assemblies are installed in the block, but you'll remember at this point we haven't correctly torqued down our conrod bearing caps.
46:32 So that's our next job.
46:34 Really critical that we don't overlook this.
46:37 Now with our Carrillo conrods, the fasteners that are supplied are supplied with both the torque specification as well as a recommended stretch.
46:45 And what we've done is prior to installing the conrods, we've calibrated the torque rating with our stretch gauge.
46:52 The requested stretch is between five and seven thousandths of an inch, and we found that a torque of 40 foot pound gave us a stretch of just under six thousandths of an inch.
47:05 40 foot pound is the recommended maximum torque.
47:09 So that's what we're going to go through and do now.
47:11 I'm going to be torquing them down in two stages.
47:14 Initially to 20 foot pound just to snug the caps down correctly into the conrod bodies, and then a final step at 40 foot pound.
47:23 So let's go through that process now.
48:41 So now we've completed the installation of our piston and conrods, everything's been torqued to specification, and this also concludes the assembly of our basic short block.
48:52 What we can do now is install the front crank bolt.
48:56 And if we rotate the crankshaft assembly, we should find that everything rotates reasonably easily and smoothly.
49:05 Shouldn't require any undue amount of force in order to rotate the assembly around.
49:11 Of course there will be some friction over and above what we felt with the bare crankshaft installed, due to the piston rings now sliding on the bore walls.
49:21 We can now move on with our next step.

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