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Practical Engine Building: Step 9: Long Block Assembly

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Step 9: Long Block Assembly

32.21

00:00 - Now with our engine short block as well as our cylinder head assembled, it's time to make the two together and assemble our long block.
00:07 Now what we're going to do is begin by fitting the oil pump housing as well as the rear crank seal and we're going to follow this up with the sump.
00:17 Now we do need to be a little bit careful of the order here.
00:21 Particularly if there is a chance that we're going to need to modify the valve pockets in the piston in order to achieve reasonable valve to piston clearance, then it obviously doesn't make any sense to assemble the sump at this point as we'll have to remove it in order to make those modifications.
00:40 With this particular combination we know that we will have sufficient piston to valve clearance so we're going to go ahead and fit the sump.
00:48 Now we're going to start with our oil pump housing.
00:52 Now it's important to understand that in most engine builds we're going to need to disassemble that oil pump housing and we're going to need to prime the oil pump.
01:03 The task of priming the oil pump simply involves filling it up with assembly lubricant, so that when we do start the engine or crank the engine to gain oil pressure, that the oil pump will prime and be able to pump oil throughout the engine.
01:19 If we fail to do this, it's going to be very difficult or impossible to gain oil pressure when it comes time to actually start the engine.
01:28 Now in the case of our 2JZ, this engine is actually going to be using a dry sump lubrication system.
01:35 So what we've done here with our factory oil pump housing is we've simply gutted it.
01:40 So this is where the original oil pump gears would normally sit.
01:44 We don't need any of those components so they've all simply been removed.
01:49 Now we've got our front crank seal already fitted into that oil pump housing and it's been thoroughly cleaned ready for assembly.
01:58 Now before we go and fit the oil pump housing onto the engine, what we want to do also is clean down the surfaces on the engine block that the oil pump housing will be sitting on.
02:11 It's quite common during the short block assembly process to end up with some excess oil dripping down some of the block surfaces.
02:18 We want to make sure that we get rid of all of that.
02:21 So I'm just going to use a rag and some brake clean and we're just going to do that task now.
02:36 At the same time I'm just going to use my brake clean and give the mating surfaces of the oil pump housing, where they're going to actually fit to the engine block, I'm just going to give those a clean as well with our brake clean.
02:57 Now before we go ahead and fit the oil pump housing onto the engine we do need to add some lubricating oil to our front crank seal.
03:08 So all I'm going to do here is just apply a small amount of oil just onto the inside surface of that crank seal.
03:17 And then we can simply spread that around with our finger.
03:21 We will find that some of these crank seals actually come with a lubricating product already on them but if the seal is dry it's really important to add a small amount of lubrication to that seal before we go ahead and fit it.
03:35 So at this point we're ready to assemble our front cover onto the engine and our oil pump housing onto the engine.
03:41 And what we want to do now is apply a thin bead of sealant onto the housing.
03:47 In the case of the 2JZ that's how the oil pump housing seals to the front of the engine block.
03:54 We'll also notice that we have two o-rings that are fitted into the front of the engine block.
04:00 Now these aren't that critical for our purposes.
04:03 These would be used with a factory oil pump.
04:07 The larger seal here is for the oil pick up that comes from the sump.
04:12 So this is the suction side of the oil pump.
04:14 And the smaller seal is the output or high pressure side of the oil pump where the oil is pumped down an oil gallery, out to the oil filter housing.
04:24 So again in our case we're not going to be using these components.
04:28 So what we're going to do now is apply our sealant onto our front cover ready to assemble it onto the engine.
04:34 What we're going to be using for this task is a ThreeBond liquid gasket product.
04:38 And we're going to be applying it in these grooves that we can see around the oil pump housing.
04:43 Also if we refer to the assembly manual, the factory workshop manual, we will have some instructions in that workshop manual on exactly where to apply the sealant.
04:54 What we're trying to do here is just provide a bead around about two to three millimetres in diameter and we're just going to cover all of the area that will be contacting the engine block.
05:06 So we'll just continue to do that now.
05:27 With our sealant applied to the oil pump housing we're now going to take that housing and we're going to assemble it onto the front of the engine.
05:34 What we want to take care with here is just as we slide that oil pump housing into place, we want to make sure that the front crank seal locates nicely over the seal surface on the crankshaft.
05:47 There's also a couple of dowels on the front of the block that locate the oil pump housing.
05:53 Once we've got that in place we can fit the fasteners and tighten those in place.
06:36 With our oil pump housing now installed, what we can do is just use a rag to remove any excess silicon sealant from the sump rails.
06:44 It's much easier to remove this prior to any of that sealant drying.
06:49 So at this point we've got our oil pump housing correctly fitted.
06:53 We can move on now and we're going to repeat that process with our rear main seal.
06:59 Installing our rear main seal is essentially the same operation we've just looked at with the oil pump housing.
07:05 We've got our rear main seal and housing here.
07:08 And we're going to begin by making sure it's clean.
07:11 Following that we're going to apply a thin bead of our ThreeBond sealant.
07:22 OK with our sealant applied, the next step we're going to go through is just to apply a thin coat of lubricating oil to the inside surface of that seal.
07:33 Now an alternative here that we can use as well instead of oil, we can also use a rubber grease.
07:42 It's important though if you are going to be using a grease that you make sure it is a grease specifically designed for rubber, otherwise it can end up damaging the surface.
07:52 Now I've already cleaned down the mating surface on the rear of the block.
07:56 So we can just fit the rear main seal.
07:58 Again there's a couple of dowels to locate that.
08:01 We just want to drop that carefully down over the rear of the crankshaft.
08:06 Again just being careful that we locate the seal correctly over the crankshaft.
08:12 And once that's in place we can drop the seal down onto the dowels and tighten it in place.
08:42 Again once we've tightened the rear main seal housing to the block we can just remove any excess sealant that's smeared out there using a clean rag.
08:53 OK so at this point we've got the front cover oil pump housing as well as our rear main seal fitted.
08:59 The next task we're going to go through here is to fit the sump to the engine.
09:03 Now again we're a little bit different here because we are dry sump.
09:06 Of course if you were running a conventional oil pump assembly, it would also be the time to fit the oil pickup.
09:13 So let's go through now and we'll apply some sealant to our sump and we can fit the sump to the bottom of the block.
09:20 Now we can go through and apply our silicon sealant onto the sump.
09:25 So we're going to be applying this to the sump instead of the engine block.
09:29 And what we're trying to do here is just apply a consistent bead around about three millimetres in diameter as I already said.
09:37 Once of the key parts to watch here is what we do when we get to any of the bolt holes.
09:43 You can see what I'm doing here is applying the sealant approximately in the centre of the sealing surface.
09:50 When I get to one of the bolt holes I'm actually applying the silicon to the inside edge of that bolt hole.
09:58 So this is going to prevent any of the oil from inside the sump making it into the bolt hole and potentially leaking down the bolt.
10:05 So in this situation we always want to seal to the inside of those bolt holes.
10:10 So we'll just continue around that sump until everything has a bead of silicon applied.
10:17 Let's go ahead now and fit the sump to the engine block.
10:25 So I'm just going to flip the sump over and there's a couple of dowels that locate the sump here onto the engine block.
10:33 So I'm just going to lower the sump onto those dowels.
10:37 And once we've got them on the dowels, just going to gently lower the sump onto the block and now we can go through and apply all of our fasteners.
10:51 So that completes the installation of the sump and the engine's bottom end now is sealed.
10:56 I'm going to flip the block over on our stand now and for the next step we're going to begin fitting the cylinder head.
11:03 Before we can install the cylinder head, there's one last job to do, and that's to install the water pump on the front of the engine block.
11:11 So we've got our water pump here.
11:13 Now this has actually been modified as well because this engine is running an external electric water pump, so in this case we've simply gutted the water pump and the water pump pulley will remain as an idler for some of the drive belts.
11:27 So what we're going to do is install this.
11:28 We can see on the front of the engine block this is actually sealed by an o-ring that sits in an o-ring groove on the block so we've installed a fresh o-ring there, now we're just going to bolt the housing in place.
12:02 So now with our water pump installed, we can begin installing the head gasket and the head studs so that we can lower the head into place.
12:11 When it comes to fitting the head gasket and the head studs, we have the option of fitting the studs first or the head gasket first.
12:18 In some instances I find that the head gasket can be a little bit tricky to lower down over the studs if we choose to install the studs first, so in this case we're going to take our head gasket initially and lay that down on the block.
12:31 For this example we are using an HKS 1.2 millimetre thick multilayer steel head gasket.
12:38 These have been proven to be well suited to high boost applications.
12:42 When it comes to fitting the head gasket to the block we do want to be very careful that the alignment or orientation of the head gasket is correct.
12:50 Often we'll be able to fit the head gasket in more than one orientation, however this will inevitably block off water cooling jackets or the oil gallery that runs into the cylinder head so it's essential to make sure our orientation is correct.
13:06 So let's fit the head gasket now.
13:12 We've cleaned down the deck surface of the block initially and I'm just going to lower the head gasket down and locate it over the two dowels in the block.
13:21 It should drop down reasonably snugly over those two dowels and now we know that we've got the head gasket located correctly.
13:28 We'll move on now and we'll fit the head stud kit to the block.
13:31 And in this instance we're using an A1 Technologies H11 head stud kit.
13:36 This is an 11 millimetre head stud so it's the same diameter as factory however it is made out of a far superior material.
13:44 So what we're going to do is screw each of the studs down in turn into the holes in the block.
13:49 We don't need to apply any sealant here, we don't need to apply any Loctite product.
13:55 All we're going to do here is screw these down into the block and we just want them just slightly tighter than finger tight.
14:01 So let's do that now.
14:14 Now with all of the studs loosely installed in the block I'm going to go through and tighten them.
14:18 This is made really easy by the recess in the top of the head studs to take an allen key.
14:24 So I'm just gonna go through and tighten them again just slightly beyond finger tight.
14:36 Now that we've got our head studs installed, we're just about ready to lower the cylinder head into place.
14:41 Before we do so though you'll notice that at the moment I've got piston number one and piston number six at top dead centre.
14:48 Now when we first install the cylinder head and we're installing the cams and getting the cam timing dialled in, there is the potential to end up damaging or bending valves if we're not careful.
15:00 So as an added precaution here, what I'm going to do is just move the pistons for number one and number six away from top dead centre slightly.
15:10 Just gonna drop those slightly down the bore so that while we're installing and timing the cams initially there's no danger of any valve to piston contact.
15:19 Now before we install the cylinder head, there is one more trick that's important to know because we're using head studs here.
15:27 The head studs use a small washer that needs to be installed on top of the stud and underneath the nut.
15:35 Now if we drop the head into place, it's going to be very difficult to fit these washers.
15:40 So what I'm going to do is install these into the head before we put the head in place.
15:46 Now what we're going to do is apply a small amount of the A1 supplied lubricant to both sides of the washer before we put that down into location, and just to locate that as I drop it down into the cylinder head, I'm just going to use an allen key, I'm going to place the allen key through the washer and I can drop the allen key down into the head stud hole in the cylinder head and this will just allow me to accurately locate that washer in the head.
16:16 So I'm gonna go ahead and fit all of those now.
16:23 With all our washers installed we can now finally lower the head into place.
16:27 So what we're going to do here is remove the cylinder head from our stand.
16:31 It's a good idea to take one last opportunity to make sure that the deck surface of the cylinder head is clean and dry, and we're going to lower the head down into place over the head studs.
16:43 Now this is a task that can often be achieved easier with two people.
16:47 If you're doing it on your own, you want to be very careful that you align the head studs with the stud holes correctly.
16:53 We want to make sure that we drop the head down squarely and slowly into place.
16:58 Making sure that it locates correctly over the two dowels in the block.
17:02 So let's go ahead and do that now.
17:21 With our head now in place we can install the nuts onto the A1 Technologies head studs.
17:27 Now what I'm going to do here is take each of the nuts and again just apply a small amount of the supplied lubricant, I want to apply just a small amount to the inside of the threads, and again just a small amount on the underside of the head.
17:41 What I'm going to do then is take a multi point socket, fit that over the nut, and I'm just going to use this to lower than down into place on the stud, and I'm just going to wind it into place.
17:54 So we'll go through and do the remaining head studs now.
18:04 Now with all of our studs and nuts completely installed, it's time to torque the head down.
18:09 Now the way we're going to do this is to follow A1 Technologies' recommendations which starts by tightening all of the studs down to 50 foot pound before loosening them completely.
18:20 We want to do this three times, and this just seats everything and ensures that when we actually torque the head down for the final time we will be getting the correct torque settings.
18:31 Or in other words the correct amount of stretch and clamping force from the fasteners.
18:36 So following the torquing and releasing three times to 50 foot pound, we're then going to torque the head studs down in three stages to 85 foot pound.
18:47 We're gonna go initially to 30, then to 60 foot pound, and then finally in our third stage to 85 foot pound.
18:53 The actual order that I'm going to be torquing these head studs down is exactly the same as that recommended by Toyota in the factory workshop manual.
19:03 It's really important to follow the correct order to torque the studs down in order to make sure that the head is pulled down evenly onto the block.
19:12 So let's go ahead and do that now.
19:23 After we've gone through the final stage torquing down all of the fasteners it's always a good idea to go through one by one and just do a final check to ensure that you haven't accidentally missed or overlooked any of the fasteners.
19:35 And in this case what we're going to do is simply move down each side of the cylinder head in order.
19:47 Now with our cylinder head correctly torqued down it's time to fit our camshafts.
19:51 Now we've already cleaned the camshafts, they're ready to install.
19:54 What we're going to do is go ahead and apply a generous amount of moly based assembly lube to both the journals in the cylinder head that the camshaft will run in as well as the actual buckets that the cam lobes will wipe against.
20:08 Now this just helps protect all of these components during initial startup until we've got a good supply of engine oil up into the cylinder head.
20:19 Now with lubricant applied to all of the components, we can drop the camshafts into place.
20:24 We want to pay special attention here of the orientation of the camshafts.
20:28 And of course the easiest solution here is just to follow the workshop manual.
20:33 In particular what we want to do is make sure that the dowels or pins on the front of the camshafts are orientated correctly.
20:41 So in this case what we're going to do is start here with our exhaust camshaft.
20:45 This wants to be dropped down and we want the dowel facing approximately at 12 o'clock or directly up.
20:53 We're now going to get our intake camshaft and we're going to do exactly the same.
21:04 Now that our camshafts are installed, I'm going to go and apply a little bit more of our moly based assembly lube to the journals of the actual camshaft, and then we can begin installing our cam caps.
21:18 Now that we've got our assembly lube applied the the camshafts, we can fit our cam caps.
21:23 I'm going to be fitting the caps as specified by the Toyota workshop manual, which begins by us fitting caps three and seven to each camshaft.
21:32 What we want to do here is take special note of the markings on the cam caps.
21:38 What we'll find is that on each of the cam caps there is a number and a letter as well as an arrow.
21:43 In this case we have E3 and the arrow.
21:47 Now E stands for the exhaust cam, three is the location of the cam cap and then the arrow faces towards the front of the engine.
21:55 It's essential the we install these cam caps in the correct location as well as the correct orientation.
22:01 When it comes to fitting the cam caps, we're going to be fitting three and seven as I've already mentioned.
22:06 It's really important as well that as we start tightening these cam caps down that we do so evenly.
22:12 We don't want to tighten one cap the entire way and leave the other one untouched, as this is a really good way of breaking the camshaft in half.
22:20 So we're going to be tightening these down evenly.
22:23 Before we fit the cam caps we're also going to apply a thin coat of lubricating oil to the threads of the bolts as well as the underside of the heads.
22:33 Now I'm going to be installing all of the caps initially just by using a socket and a ratchet.
22:40 Once I've gone through and everything is tightened, we're going to go through and torque them to specification.
22:45 So let's get that happening now.
22:57 So at this point we've got all of our cam caps fitted except for our number one or our front cam caps.
23:03 The reason we've left these out is we're now going to go ahead and install a fresh set of camshaft oil seals.
23:09 It's much easier to locate these correctly before we put these cam caps in.
23:15 So we've got our brand new oil seals here.
23:19 What I'm going to do is just apply a very small amount of engine oil just to the sealing surface, and once we've done that we can just locate these over the snout of the cam, and we're just going to push these into location.
23:34 What we're trying to do here is just get them slightly below the surface and they'll just be flush with the chamfer on the front of the cylinder head.
23:44 I'll now complete that for our second camshaft oil seal.
23:56 With our camshaft oil seals installed, we can fit our front cam caps.
24:00 However we do need to also apply a small bead of silicon sealant to those cam caps to ensure that no oil leaks.
24:08 Again we can follow the directions in the factory manual on exactly where that bead of silicon needs to be.
24:14 Before we install the cam caps, we also want to make sure that the mating surfaces on the cylinder head as well as the cam caps is clean and free from oil.
24:54 As we install these front cam caps, we also want to ensure that the oil seal is sitting in the correct location before we tighten down the cap completely.
25:08 I'll now repeat that exercise for the intake cam cap.
25:18 Lastly before we move on and fit the timing belt and the cam pulleys, we're going to go through and torque these down to specification which from the factory manual is 20 newton metres.
25:34 With our cams now installed we can move onto the front of the engine and install the components there including the timing belt and get the engine timed up.
25:41 The first component we're going to be installing is the backing plate that sits in behind the cam pulleys.
25:46 This is an important part because it actually has the timing marks on it that we're going to be using to align the cam pulleys when it comes time to fitting the cam belt.
25:55 When we're fitting any of these components that sit around or behind the timing belt, I'm always very cautious and I like to use just a small amount of a Loctite product just to ensure that none of these bolts or fasteners are likely to become loose and then subsequently fall through the timing belt.
26:13 So let's go and install our backing plate now.
26:23 With our backing plate installed, the next step is to install our two cam pulleys.
26:28 What we're going to do is install the cam pulleys.
26:30 I'm going to apply a small amount of a thread locking compound onto the bolts and then we're going to torque those to the factory recommendations.
26:45 Now with our two cam pulleys installed we can move the cam position until the marks on the cam sprockets align with the timing marks on the backing plate.
26:54 And if you're not familiar with how to do this then you need to refer to the workshop manual that will guide you through the process.
27:09 So at this point with our cam timing now correct, we can move our crankshaft back until it's at the TDC position.
27:17 And we see that there is a mark on our cam sprocket that needs to align with a little mark on the oil pump housing.
27:24 So let's just rotate that back into position carefully now.
27:35 Now we're at a point where we can fit our timing belt.
27:38 For this particular engine we're going to be using an HKS aftermarket timing belt.
27:43 I've already gone ahead and I've installed both the idler pulley as well as the auto tensioner and these components are essential for correctly tensioning the cam belt.
27:54 What we're going to do is we're going to be installing the cam belt onto both the cam sprockets as well as the bottom pulley.
27:59 And we're going to be very careful while we do this to ensure that the alignment of the timing marks still remains correct.
28:06 Let's do that now.
28:22 Once we've got the timing belt installed, and we've double checked that our three timing marks are still correct, we can remove the pin from the auto tensioner and this will apply tension to the cam belt.
28:39 With the pin on the auto tensioner removed, what we're going to do now is rotate the crankshaft through two full revolutions and make sure that our timing marks all come back to exactly where they should be.
28:56 So we can see that we've still got our crankshaft pulley mark aligned as well as our two marks for our cam sprockets.
29:03 Now with our cam belt installation complete and our engine correctly timed, we're getting very close to completing our engine assembly.
29:10 We've only got our front covers and crank pulley as well as our rocker covers left to fit.
29:14 Before we go and fit those components though, we're going to go through and just check the valve lash or valve clearance in the cylinder head.
29:22 You'll remember we discussed this during the cylinder head assembly step, but we can't completely check this or thoroughly check this until the head is torqued down on the block as this can affect the clearance that we measure.
29:34 So what we're going to do now is use some feeler blades and we're just going to go through our cylinder head and we're going to check each of the valves that are closed, we're going to just slide our feeler blade between the base circle of the cam and the bucket and check our clearance, which should for these cams be 10 thou on both the intake and the exhaust.
29:54 I find it's an easy way of keeping track of what our clearances are by simply using a sharpie marker and writing the clearances that I'm measuring on the aluminium of the cylinder head.
30:06 This is a really quick reference if we do need to make any adjustments.
30:09 So let's go through that process now.
30:21 So we've gone through the cylinder head now and we've checked our valve lash on each of the valves, and fortunately for us they all measure at 10 thousandths of an inch which is the recommendation from the camshaft manufacturer.
30:33 At this point we're going to now install our rocker covers, install our front covers, and our crank pulley assembly in order to complete the engine.
30:53 So this concludes the long block assembly for our Toyota 2JZ engine.
30:58 We've now got a complete long block assembly ready for the installation of the intake and exhaust manifolds as well as auxiliary components such as the dry sump pump and the alternator.
31:09 I just wanted to mention at this point, because we sped through it, when it comes to tightening up the front crank pulley, this is quite an important aspect.
31:18 And you may struggle to correctly torque this up with the engine sitting on an engine stand because it's essential to prevent the crankshaft from rotating.
31:27 Often this can be easier to accomplish once the engine's removed from the engine stand and the fly wheel assembly is fitted.
31:35 It's much easier to lock up the fly wheel to prevent the crankshaft rotating while we're trying to achieve the correct torque setting for the front crank pulley.
31:44 With the engine long block now complete, we can now move onto the final step of the 10 step process which is our initial start up and run in.
31:52 Now at this point we don't have a car to fit this engine to, so we're not going to be able to demonstrate that particular process to you.
32:00 At this point you can check back to the main body of the course and you'll find there the steps required to go through that process.